Perspectives of using the techniques of implementation intentions in education

Radosława Herzog-Krzywoszańska, Łukasz Krzywoszański


The students' ability to handle their educational behaviours ís an essential precondition for effective knowledge acquisition. However, widespread difficulties in organizing their own activities reduce effectiveness of education and lead to educational failures. One of the methods that supports effective achievement of educational goals is implementation intentions. So far, this method has been used mainly in health furtherance and disease prevention. Such intentions take the format of "If (I find myself in situation x)... - then (I will perform action y) ...". The aim of this article is to present the results of experimental studies demonstrating effectiveness of implementation intentions approach in different areas of educational practice. Its use allowed increasing attendance in classes and improvement of self-governed student educational activity, including on-time delivery of written work and increase in the amount of time spent on self-study. Furthermore, it allowed enhancing the efficiency of educational methods based on information technology tools. It has been shown that efficiency of solving a series of difficult computer tasks was improved due to the use of implementation intentions. The outcomes of learning based on the presentation of multimedia educational materials were also improved. Discussed results demonstrate that implementation intentions has a wide range of educational applications. Attention was paid to the vast possibilities of using this technique in forms of education based on self-learning and in distant education using electronic communication in synchronous and asynchronous mode. It was recommended to include implementation intentions into programs of training and raising qualifications of educational staff.


  • Gollwitzer, P.M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54(7), 493-503.
  • Gollwitzer, P.M., Brandstatter, V. (1997). Implementation Intentions and Effective Goal Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(1), 186-199.
  • Gollwitzer, P.M., Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation Intentions and Goal Achievement: A Meta-analysis of Effects and Processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119.
  • Hagger, M.S., Luszczynska, A., de Wit, J., Benyamini, Y., Burkert, S., Chamberland, P.E., ... Gollwitzer, P.M. (2016). Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice. Psychology and Health, 31(7), 814-839.
  • Kachgal, M.M., Hansen, L.S., Nutter, K.J. (2001). Academic procrastination prevention/intervention: Strategies and recommendations. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(1), 2-12.
  • Kadzikowska-Wrzosek, R. (2011). Subiektywna ocena postępu w realizacji celów. Wpływ implementacji intencji oraz różnic indywidualnych w sposobie formułowania celów i w sile woli. Psychologia Społeczna, 6(1), 49-66. Pobrane z:
  • Parks-Stamm, E.J., Gollwitzer, P.M. i Oettingen, G. (2010). Implementation intentions and test anxiety: Shielding academic performance from distraction. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(1), 30-33.
  • Scent, C.L., Boes, S.R. (2014). Acceptance and Commitment Training: A Brief Intervention to Reduce Procrastination Among College Students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 28, 144-156.
  • Sheeran, P., Webb, T.L., Gollwitzer, P.M. (2005). The Interplay Between Goal Intentions and Implementation Intentions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(1), 87-98.
  • Sommer, L., Haug, M. (2012). What Influences Implementation Intentions in an Academic Learning Context - The roles of Goal Intentions, Procrastination, and Experience. International Journal of Higher Education, 1(1), 32-61.
  • Stalbovs, K., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P. (2015). Implementation intentions during multimedia learning: Using if-then plans to facilitate cognitive processing. Learning and Instruction, 35, 1-15.
  • Webb, T.L., Christian, J. i Armitage, C.J. (2007). Helping students turn up for class: Does personality moderate the effectiveness of an implementation intention intervention? Learning and Individual Differences, 17(4), 316-327.
  • Zimmerman, B.J. (2002). Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner: An Overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.

Radosława Herzog-Krzywoszańska

Łukasz Krzywoszański

About the article


The article is in the printed version on pages 4-8.

pdf download PDF

pdf read the article (Polish)

How to cite