The impact of formal education on financial inclusion in payment services

Michał Polasik, Agnieszka Huterska, Andrzej Meler


The purpose of the article is to examine the impact of consumer characteristics, including formal education, on the degree of payment inclusion, which is an important element of financial inclusion. For this purpose, the results of two surveys conducted in cooperation with the TNS research agency were used - the first one based on a nationwide sample of 1000 people aged 15 and over and the second one covering selected European Union countries. Statistical data have showed that in some European countries, including Poland, low-educated consumers use bank services less often, while in other countries the differences are small. An in-depth quantitative analysis of this problem concerning the Polish market was conducted using the logit model. The obtained results indicate that such activities as having a bank account, accessing this account via the internet, holding a card and using mobile payments are significantly dependent on the number of years of formal education of a consumer as well as some of their other socio-demographic characteristics. This points out that it would be justified to introduce the knowledge of the use of financial services already at the level of primary education.


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Michał Polasik

Agnieszka Huterska

Andrzej Meler

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The article is in the printed version on pages 20-40.

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Polasik, M., Huterska, A. & Meler, A. (2018). Wpływ edukacji formalnej na włączenie finansowe w zakresie usług płatniczych. e-mentor, 1(73), 30-40. DOI: