Wage differentials between female and male academic staff employed in public universities

Mariusz Kaszubowski, Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz

This paper examines the gender wage gap in Polish public higher education institutions. The analysis is based on the unique web-survey data in which information about level of the salary and characteristics of the employees has been gathered. The study involves wage regression analyses in which among additional employed covariates have been: gender, experience, academic rank, type of the institution (e.g university versus economic school) and productivity. The productivity is measured in terms of the publication record. Results of the study confirm that on average women earn less than men, but this is mostly due to the differences in academic ranks, and not a consequence of wage discrimination per se. Additionally, it was shown that the variable related to productivity is not among the important determinants of one's salary. This lack of relationship between research productivity and individual academics' salaries questions the way research is assessed, and can be considered demotivating in terms of careers in Polish academia.


  • V.A. Adamchik, A.S. Bedi, Gender Pay Differentials During the Transition in Poland, „Economics of Transition” 2003, Vol. 11, No. 4, s. 697-726.
  • A. Blinder, Wage discrimination: Reduced form and structural estimates, „Journal of Human Resources” 1973, Vol. 8, No. 4, s. 436-455.
  • M. Kaszubowski, Płaca progowa pracowników naukowo-dydaktycznych polskich wyższych uczelni publicznych w warunkach hipotetycznego kontraktu, „Nierówności społeczne a wzrost gospodarczy” 2013, z. 31.
  • M. Kaszubowski, J. Wolszczak-Derlacz Salary and reservation wage gender gaps in Polish academia, „GUT Faculty of Management and Economics, Working Paper Series A (Economics, Management, Statistics)” 2014, No.1 (19).
  • Konferencja Rektorów Akademickich Szkół Polskich (KRASP), Polskie szkolnictwo wyższe. Stan, uwarunkowania i perspektywy, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa 2009,
  • S.M. Kot (red.), Analiza ekonometryczna kształtowania się płac w Polsce w okresie transformacji, PWN, Warszawa-Kraków 1999.
  • R.L. Oaxaca, Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets, „International Economic Review” 1973, Vol. 14, No. 3, s. 693-709.
  • M. Rokicka, A Ruzik, The Gender Pay Gap in Informal Employment in Poland, „CASE Network Studies & Analyses” 2010, No. 406.
  • R.K.S. Toutkoushian, Sex Matters Less for Younger Faculty: Evidence of Disaggregate Pay Disparities from the 1988 and 1993 NCES Surveys, „Economics of Education Review” 1998, Vol. 17, No. 1, s. 75-71.
  • M. Ward, Gender, Salary and Promotion in the Academic Profession, „Scottish Journal of Political Economy” 2001, Vol. 48, No. 3, s. 283-302.



Gdańsk University of Technology


Gdańsk University of Technology

Table of contents

About the article

DOI: 10.15219/em54.1093

The article is in the printed version on pages 46-50.

pdf download PDF

pdf read the article (Polish)


M. Kaszubowski, J. Wolszczak-Derlacz, Zróżnicowanie płac kobiet i mężczyzn zatrudnionych jako pracownicy naukowo-dydaktyczni w publicznych szkołach wyższych, „e-mentor” 2014, nr 2 (54), s. 46-50,